KASHMIR – Historical Perspective
U. N. RESOLUTIONS – A REALITY
In 1946, M A Jinnah conferred with the leaders of J&K for merger with the proposed new state of Pakistan but did not get a favourable response. On 20 October, 1947 , Pakistan, not adhering to the Stand Still Agreement with the Maharaja of J&K, launched an invasion of J&K by Tribals led by Pakistan Army officers, prompting the Maharaja to accede to India on 26 October, 1947. The Indian Army saved Srinagar in the nick of time and cleared two thirds of Kashmir from the infiltrators. Subsequently a UN -sponsored ceasefire was accepted.
Appeal to the UN
On 30 December, 1947, while the operations were still in progress, and going India’s way, Indian Political leadership appealed to the United Nations to intervene and ask Pakistan to withdraw its troops. Four UN Resolutions were passed during 1948 and 1949. These envisaged the following :-
– Pakistan to withdraw all its troops from areas it had occupied in Kashmir.
– After Pakistan troops withdrawal, India to withdraw the bulk of its forces but to maintain a requisite strength for safeguarding the law and order in the state.
– Subsequently, the future status of the state was to be determined in accordance with the will of the people.
Pakistan’s Default and Culpability.
– As it was guilty of the invasion of J&K, it did not abide by the UN Resolution and neither withdrew its troops and infiltrators. Instead, it built airfields in the occupied territory, and imposed A full civilian and military control while claiming the territory as Azad Kashmir. For these violations the UN could not impose sanctions on Pakistan as the Resolution was not under Chapter VII of the Charter.
– To win Chinese support, it gifted 4853 sq km of the Kashmiri territory in the Shaksgam Valley to
China in 1963, thus disrupting the territorial integrity of the State of J&K. Now, to recover this
territory it is next to impossible.
– Pakistan by a Constitution Amendment incorporated a part of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir(POK),
that is, Northern Areas, in Pakistan, thereby changing the territorial status of J&K and violating the UN Resolutions.
– Pakistan has changed the DEMOGRAPHY of POK by resettling large number of Punjabi ex- servicemen and Afghans from NWFP, thereby making plebiscite of erstwhile J&K irrelevant.
– Pakistan launched three large scale operations on India in 1965, 1971 and the recent Kargil war in 1999 with an attempt to militarily change the territorial status of J&K.
-After 1971 as Bangladesh was formed from East pakistan, Pakistan could no longer cite the two nation theory nor could it claim that it was the true homeland of all Muslims of the sub continent, therefore Pakistan claim on Kashmir became invalid. Also post 1971the Pakistan which remained was not even party to the dispute since it had less than half the population of original Pakistan.
– Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement in 1972 and Lahore Accord in 1998 with India, stating resolving of all disputes between two countries bilaterally and through peaceful negotiations.
– Since 1988, Pakistan has sponsored cross border terrorism in J&K with an aim to change the territorial status of J&K unilaterally which is again violation of the UN Resolutions.
– China is illegally occupying Aksai Chin area which is 19 percent of the territory. It will be next to impossible for the UN to make China vacate the area.
– In addition to the people of J&K, the Pakistan paid stooges in Kashmir demanding the implementation of the UN Resolutions, have participated in elections conducted in J&K, sworn by the Indian Constitution and also been members of the State Legislative Assembly for number of years. So, what other plebiscite they are asking for now?
THE WORLD MUST REMEMBER THAT ERSTWHILE JAMMU AND KASHMIR CONSISTED OF JAMMU REGION, KASHMIR REGION, LADAKH REGION, PAKISTAN OCCUPIED KASHMIR, BALTISTAN, GILGIT, HUNZA, SHAKSGAM VALLEY AND AKSAI CHIN (BOTH OCCUPIED BY CHINA)
DO YOU STILL THINK UN RESOLUTIONS ARE
RELEVANT AND CAN BE IMPLEMENTED?